From Dan Levitin designed a psychology exper­i­ment using a special player piano to analyze and repro­duce a perfor­mance without expres­sive elements, and versions in between. When partic­i­pants ranked their pref­er­ence of versions it was found they matched the most expres­sive, in which a musi­cian uses vari­a­tions in timing, loud­ness and soft­ness to convey emotion. In the second brief video, part 2, Levitin discusses impli­ca­tions for synthe­sized music. · Go to It’s all in the timing: A psychol­o­gist measures how musi­cians commu­ni­cate emotions →