From Knowledge@Wharton: Errors and omissions of the most ordinary and preventable kind kill thousands of patients every year in hospitals throughout the developed and developing worlds. A simple solution exists to this problem, argues Atul Gawande in his most recent book, The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right. A surgeon and a journalist, Gawande shows just how effective checklists can be to reduce the damage caused by human fallibility in industries including medicine, construction, aviation and others where the work environment depends on complicated processes, technology and equipment. So why aren’t checklists used in every operating room and ICU? The answer is simple: In the existing medical establishment, too many doctors don’t like to be told what to do. Add one more box to the checklist — the need for cultural change.